Arduino may be familiar to engineering students and professionals. Students in electronics are buzzing about the name.
Working with electronics used to require math, physics, and other skills. With technology, tools and equipment have changed the electronics working model, eliminating the need for extensive knowledge.
One of these new tools is “Arduino,” which helps students learn electronics early on. You may wonder what Arduino is used for and in what language.
Table of Contents
We’ll discuss Arduino electronics soon.
Arduino meaning and history are explained here. Every type of Arduino board, Arduino microprocessors, why to use Arduino, Arduino UNO components, constraints, and applications will be covered.
Arduino is an open-source platform for electronic circuit development. It has hardware and software. Arduino microcontrollers are programmable circuit boards. Developers write and upload code to the microcontroller using Arduino software, an IDE.
We can program the Arduino board to perform simple to complex tasks. Code loading on traditional programmable circuit boards requires separate hardware. Arduino loads code onto the board using a USB cable, eliminating the need for hardware.
The Arduino board lets developers program in simplified C++, making it easier to learn and code.
Details on Arduino UNO Starter Kit
- Arduino Hardware
- Arduino Parts
- Arduino’s hardware is its programmable circuit board. You may have used Arduino boards in your work, but Arduino UNO is the most popular. All Arduino boards have a microcontroller, a small computer that powers Arduino.
- Learning Arduino requires learning about microcontrollers and how to use them. Arduino microcontrollers read and control inputs and outputs.
Software for Arduino is Arduino IDE. Download the software to your computer and program Arduino boards to perform various tasks.
Arduino board instructions are written in an IDE like a text editor.
Code, or sketches, are Arduino’s third most important component after hardware and software. Write code in Arduino IDE and load it on board.
You may wonder what language Arduino uses for scripting. Arduino Programming Language is its native C++-like language. Sketches are Arduino Programming Language programs saved in.ino files.
You need basic C and C++ programming skills to write Arduino board instructions.
Hardware, software, and code comprise Arduino.
Steps to Start Arduino
Types of Arduino Boards
Arduino lets you make boards with extra features. Arduino boards are open-source, so anyone can modify and create derivatives. You can add multiple functions with these changes.
Common Arduinos even computer beginners can use include:
- R3 Arduino UNO
Uno R3 Arduino
UNO is one of the easiest ways to start in electronics. It uses an ATmega328P microcontroller and has:
14 digital pins
6 PWM pins
6 analog input pins
A reset button
Arduino UNO (R3) has everything to support the microcontroller. Simply connect it to your computer via USB and power it with an AC-to-DC adapter or battery.
- Nano Arduino
This board uses ATmega328P and ATmega628 microcontrollers and has UNO-like connections. Compact, flexible, and reliable, this mini USB board is great for projects.
The board has 8 analog, 14 digital, 1 I/O, 6 power, and 2 RST (reset) pins.
- Arduino Micro
The Micro Arduino
This Arduino uses an ATmega32U4 microcontroller with 20 pins, 7 of which are PWM and 12 analog input pins. The Arduino Micro has ICSP header, RST button, small USB connection, and 16-MHz crystal oscillator.
Arduino Micro, a mini Leonardo board, has a USB port.
- Arduino Lilypad
The Lily Pad Arduino board is e-textile. This hardware is expanded by Leah “Buechley” and designed by them. Each board has thick connecting pads and a smooth back for conductive thread sewing. This Arduino has power, sensor, and I/O boards. This Arduino board is washable, a bonus!
- Arduino RedBoard
The mini-b USB can program this board. Like the previous Lilypad, this board has a flat back for easy placement. Without changing settings, this board works well with Windows 8. Simply plug this board into your system and write code to upload. This board is controlled by a barrel jack and USB cable.
- Arduino Mega R3
Arduino Mega R3
Arduino Mega R3, an expanded Arduino UNO, has a digital I/O pin. It has 14 PWM o/ps, 6 analog inputs, a reset button, a power jack, and a USB connection.
USB cables allow computer-to-computer communication. This Arduino board is ideal for large digital input/output projects.
- Arduino Leonardo
The Arduino Leonardo
This Arduino was the first USB-connected development board with one microcontroller. It is the simplest and cheapest Arduino, making it ideal for beginners.
The Arduino Board’s contents?
Arduino UNO is the most popular and easiest Arduino board. Although these boards look and feel different, they all have some common components. Thus, let us examine its fundamentals.
The simple and widely used prototyping board is suitable for electronics beginners. As the foundation, electronics developers must understand its components.
The UNO has an ATmega328P. A through-hole microcontroller connection and a surface mount type are available. The through-hole model allows chip replacement in case of error.
AVR-based Arduino UNO is an 8-bit microcontroller with many features.
UNO has 14 digital I/O pins for input and output. Six of these 14 pins can produce PWM signals. Every pin on this board is 5V and 20mA.
Power is always needed to run the board. This board can be powered by a barrel-jack wall power supply or a USB connection to your computer. Above, (1) indicates USB and (2) the barrel jack.
You can load code onto your Arduino board via USB.
USB to Arduino board
Image above shows:
GND (3): Grounds your circuit.
5V (4) & 3.3V (5): The 5V and 3.3V pins supply five and 3.3 volts, respectively.
Analog (6): These pins are listed from A0 to A5. Analog sensors will be digitalized.
The 14 I/O pins that perform specific functions are shown in the top right of the image:
Serial data can be received and sent on pins 0 and 1. You can program the Arduino board and communicate with users via serial monitor.
External interrupts are possible on pins 2 and 3. The pins cause an external event.
Six pins (3-11) output 8-bit PWM.
SPI communication uses pins 10, 11, 12, and 13 for SS, MOSI, MISO, and SCK.
Pin 13 is LED-connected. The LED turns on when this pin is HIGH and off when it is LOW.
Analog Reference (AREF) sets an external reference voltage (0–5V).
In the top left image, (10) indicates the reset button. The reset pin is grounded by this button, restarting the uploaded code. In case of failure, press reset to test your code again.
Powering your Arduino to a source illuminates the Power LED Indicator (11).
TX RX LEDs (12) are shown above. Useful for serial communication. These LEDs indicate Arduino data reception and transmission.
(13) defines Arduino’s IC, or brain. IC type is listed on top.
(14) specifies the voltage regulator, which controls Arduino board voltage. The gatekeeper prevents extra voltage from entering the circuit. Do not connect the Arduino to more than 20 volts because it has limits.
Why Use Arduino?
- Many people use Arduino now. It’s easy to use and program, so beginners and experts like it. Arduino works with Mac, Windows, and Linux. You can also make cheap scientific instruments with it.
- Arduino lets you experiment with microcontrollers. Here are some important Arduino reasons.
- Arduino boards are cheap. You can hand-assemble Arduino or buy pre-assembled modules for under $50.
- Cross-platform: Arduino boards work on Windows, Mac, and Linux.
- The Arduino Software’s IDE uses a simple C++ version, making it easy to learn.
Arduino has many uses, but you must know its limitations before using it.
Memory: Arduino lacks program and variable memory. It cannot accept external memory. External memory uses ATmega32 and ATmega128 pins, but not I/O functions.
Fundamental design assumptions prevent Arduino boards from supporting external memory. Remember that Arduino is an inexpensive Intel-based single-board computer and was not designed to replace a full-on computer system with high system requirements.
Speed: The Arduino CPU runs at 8–20 MHz, which is slow for most platforms. Each clock cycle can execute several instructions, leaving a lot of CPU activity between pulses.
Electrical power: Arduino hardware has 3.3V I/O and 5V tolerant devices, so voltage parameters must be considered. Connecting 5V transistor-transistor logic to 3.3V devices can damage Arduino hardware.
Uses for Arduino
Examples of Arduino applications:
Arduino is suitable for beginner and intermediate robotics projects. Even with limited resources, a robot can function with basic commands. K’Nex Wall-Following Robot and SCARA Robot Arm are well-known Arduino-powered robots.
From Hi-Fi to headphones, sound quality matters. Arduinos are not audio-friendly, but you can use them to add audio to your projects.
Tools: Arduino lets you design print farms, 3D printers, CNC machines, laser etchers, etc.
Most Arduinos have Ethernet ports for networking. This facility is useful for IoT and data-logging projects.
GPS: Arduino can track devices and vehicles and create one of the best GPS applications.
Its applications are endless, but we’ve listed a few.
What’s Arduino? It’s the start of creating innovative apps and electronics. So that’s Arduino basics. Arduino lets circuit designers of all levels create unique applications with this easy-to-install program. Arduino IDE is free and open-source, so you can download it and start coding.
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