Internet of things (IoT) devices communicate with each other and the cloud. IoT devices include mechanical, digital, and consumer goods with sensors and software.
Companies across industries are using IoT to improve efficiency, customer service, decision-making, and business value.
IoT lets data travel over a network without human or computer intervention.
In the internet of things, a person with a heart monitor implant, a farm animal with a biochip transponder, an automobile with sensors to alert the driver of low tire pressure, or any other natural or man-made object with an IP address can transfer data over a network.
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How does IoT work?
Web-enabled smart devices with CPUs, sensors, and communication hardware send and act on environmental data in an IoT ecosystem.
A gateway lets IoT devices send sensor data to a hub. Data may be sent to an edge device for local analysis before sharing. Local data analysis cuts cloud data transfer and bandwidth.
These devices can share and act on data. People can set up, instruct, and retrieve data from the devices, but they mostly work without them.
These web-enabled devices’ networking, communication, and connectivity depend on IoT apps. Artificial intelligence and machine learning can simplify and dynamically capture IoT data.
An IoT gateway sends sensor data to an application or back end system for analysis.
The importance of IoT
Smarter living and working with IoT. Automobiles, wearables, and thermostats with IoT can improve consumers’ lives. When someone gets home, their car can talk to the garage to open the door, their thermostat can adjust to a preset temperature, and their lighting can be dimmed and colored.
Business needs IoT and smart home automation. It shows firms how their machines, supply chains, and logistics work in real time.
The IoT lets machines do tedious tasks without human intervention. Automation cuts labor costs, waste, and improves service. IoT lowers manufacturing and delivery costs and increases consumer transaction transparency.
IoT is a crucial technology because more companies realize the power of linked devices to compete.
What do businesses gain from IoT?
Organizations benefit from IoT. Some benefits are industry-specific, while others are general. Business benefits often include:
- Manages operations.
- Increases customer satisfaction.
- Saves time, money.
- Increases worker output.
- Integrates and adapts business strategies.
- Enhances business decisions.
- Revenue rises.
IoT helps businesses rethink and improve their strategies.
- Most IoT companies use sensors and other devices in manufacturing, transportation, and utilities, but some use them in agriculture, infrastructure, and home automation to digitally transform.
- Agriculture can be simplified by IoT. From sensors, IoT can automate farming with rainfall, humidity, temperature, and soil data.
- Infrastructure operations can be monitored by IoT. Sensors can detect unsafe structural building, bridge, and infrastructure changes. Incident response, operational costs, and service have improved.
- Home automation companies monitor and control mechanical and electrical systems with IoT. Energy and waste savings are possible in smart cities.
IoT is used in healthcare, banking, retail, and manufacturing.
In 1999, MIT Auto ID Center co-founder Kevin Ashton presented the internet of things to Procter & Gamble. Ashton used 1999’s internet boom to introduce radio frequency ID to P&G’s senior management in his “Internet of Things” presentation. MIT professor Neil Gershenfeld published When Things Think in 1999. Despite not using the exact phrase, the novel showed IoT’s future.
IoT came from wireless, microelectromechanical, microservices, and internet technology. This convergence crossed operational and IT boundaries to evaluate unstructured machine-generated data for improvements.
IoT was first mentioned by Ashtons, but embedded internet and pervasive computers date back to the 1970s.
Coke machines at Carnegie Mellon University in the early 1980s were the first internet appliances. Programmers could check machine status and cold drink availability online.
M2M communication over a network without human contact created IoT. M2M uses cloud-based device management and data collection.
Billion-device IoT connects people, computers, and other applications to collect and share data, advancing M2M. M2M is built on IoT connectivity.
SCADA, which uses real-time data from remote sites to control equipment and conditions, naturally extends to IoT. Software and hardware comprise SCADA systems. Data is sent to a desktop computer with SCADA software, which processes and displays it quickly. Late SCADA systems spawned early IoT systems.
After China prioritized IoT in its five-year plan in 2010, the ecosystem took off.
Consumer IoT use increased between 2010 and 2019. Trending were smart TVs and smartphones that could communicate over one network.
Cellular IoT devices and networks using 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G, LoRaWAN, and LTE M increased in 2020.
In 2023, billions of internet-connected devices share consumer and industry data. IoT has enabled the creation of digital twins, which simulate real-world processes.
The pros and cons of IoT?
The benefits of IoT are:
- Accessible on any device, anytime.
- Aids electronic device communication.
- Allows network data packet transport, saving time and money.
- Collects massive amounts of data from many devices for users and manufacturers.
- Edge analysis cuts cloud data transfer.
- Automating tasks and reducing human involvement improves company services.
- Improves patient care continuously.
Some IoT drawbacks:
More connected devices increase attack surface. Hackers can steal personal data as devices communicate more.
IoT device proliferation complicates device management. Organizations may struggle to collect and manage IoT data from many devices.
System bugs can corrupt linked devices.
Device compatibility is affected by the lack of an international IoT standard. Manufacturers’ device communication is hampered.
Internet of Things frameworks and standards
- Notable IoT standard-developers include:
- The IEC.
- Industrial Internet Consortium.
- Open Connectivity Foundation.
- Thread Group.
Alliance for Internet Standards.
Some IoT standards:
IPv6 over LoWPAN is an IETF open standard. This standard connects low-power radios like 804.15.4, Bluetooth Low Energy, and Z Wave for home automation to the internet. This standard is used in agriculture, industrial, and home automation.
Power, data rate low Most homes and factories use Zigbee wireless networks. IEEE 802.15.4 powers ZigBee. The ZigBee Alliance’s universal IoT language, Dotdot, lets smart things securely communicate on any network.
The Object Management Group created Data Distribution Service (DDS), an IIoT standard for real-time, scalable, and high-performance M2M connectivity.
IoT standards often use device communication protocols. IoT data transmission and reception are protocol-controlled. Examples of IoT protocols:
Restricted Application Protocol. IoT devices with low power and compute constraints use IETF CoAP.
Advanced MQP. The open-source AMQP protocol allows wired asynchronous communications. AMQP enables encrypted, interoperable organization-application communication. Protocol used for IoT device management and client-server messaging.
The LoRaWAN network. This WAN protocol supports smart cities with millions of low-power devices.
Send MQ Telemetry. A lightweight control and remote monitoring protocol is MQTT. Devices with few resources can use it.
AWS IoT is an IoT cloud platform. This framework secures smart device connections to AWS and other devices.
Open-source Arm Mbed IoT lets you create Arm microcontroller IoT apps. Mbed tools and services connect, scale, and protect IoT devices on this platform.
Microsoft Azure IoT Suite lets users receive and process IoT data, perform multidimensional analysis, transformation, and aggregation, and visualize those operations in a business-friendly way.
Ericsson Calvin, an open-source IoT platform, designs and manages distributed device-communication applications. Calvin has a runtime and application framework.
Enterprise and consumer IoT apps
Internet of things applications include consumer, enterprise, manufacturing, and IIoT. Automotive, telecom, and energy use IoT.
Consumer smart homes with thermostats, appliances, and connected heating, lighting, and electronics can be managed remotely via computers and smartphones.
Wearable devices with sensors and software can collect and analyze user data and communicate with other technologies to improve lives. Wearable devices optimize routes or record construction workers’ or firefighters’ vital signs in life-threatening situations to speed up first responders.
IoT data analysis helps doctors monitor patients. Hospitals manage pharmaceutical and medical instrument inventory with IoT.
Smart buildings can save energy with room occupancy sensors. Sensors can turn on the air conditioner in a full conference room or lower the heat in an empty office.
Sensors in IoT-based smart farming systems monitor crop field light, temperature, humidity, and soil moisture. Automation of irrigation systems uses IoT.
A smart city with smart lighting and meters can reduce traffic, conserve energy, monitor and manage environmental issues, and improve sanitation.
IoT security and privacy issues
In IoT, billions of data points and devices connected to the internet must be protected. Due to its larger attack surface, IoT security and privacy are major issues.
2016 saw one of the worst IoT attacks. Mirai took down Dyns DNS for a long time. Weakly secured IoT devices let attackers access the network. Mirai is one of the largest DDoS attacks and is evolving.
Due to their close connectivity, a hacker can manipulate all IoT data, rendering it useless. Unpatched devices can be exploited by cybercriminals. Hackers like connected devices because they ask consumers for names, ages, addresses, phone numbers, and social media profiles.
Privacy is another IoT threat besides hackers. Consumer IoT device manufacturers may sell user data.
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